I sometimes like to make a short video explaining how the spacecraft works when I finish making the CGI models. These are generally VERY short!
The heliogyro is a special type of solar sail, a propulsion method that relies on the tiny pressure of light itself.
The Medusa Nuclear Pulse
Nuclear pulse spacecraft are propelled by the force of nuclear explosions, where the blast is trapped and used to propel the spacecraft.
Ion Rocket, Ernst Stuhlinger design.
Ion rockets work by propelling charged particles at very high speed. They are low thrust by VERY efficient. The large “sails” are for cooling purposes.
The Cosmic Butterfly.
Another early Ion engine design from Ernst Stuhliger, this one uses spinning mercury boilers instead of nuclear power.